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Plants and Animals unique to Palestine

نباتات وحيوانات فلسطينية فريدة من نوعها

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Article Reference: Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/

There are many Plants and Animals which are unique to Palestine.

Palestine Iris Iris Palaestina. Haifa, Palestine. 

Photo by: Ishi Talmon. http://libutron.tumblr.com/post/75505135902/iris-palaestina-haifa-israel-c-ishi-talmon

Plants unique to Palestine

Among about 165 vascular plant species known solely from Palestine are the Palestine Iris Iris Palaestina, the Dark-purple Iris Iris atropurpurea, the Mount Gilboa Iris Iris haynei, the Sharon Plain Sedge Cyperus sharonensis, the Palestine Bedstraw Galium philistaeum, the Israel Orchid Anacamptis israelitica, the Tel Aviv Stork's Bill Erodium telavivense, a sorrel Rumex aeroplaniformis, the Jaffa Groundsel Senecio joppensis, the Har Ramon Buffonia Bufonia ramonensis, the Har Ramon Caper Shrub Capparis ramonensis,  the Naqab Alkanet Hormuzakia negevensis, the Danin Fennel Ferula daninii, the Plantain Plantago sabulosa, the Naqab Onion Allium negevense, and Allium tardiflorum. Mosheovia is sometimes considered an endemic genus distinct from the widespread Scrophularia (Living National Treasures; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2012).

Jaffa Groundsel Senecio joppensis. Kuwait. Photo by: Carol Spears. 26.02.2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senecio_glaucus#mediaviewer/File:Senecio_glaucus_Kuwait.jpg

Palestine and Israel are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot. Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Eastern Mediterranean Conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf Forests and the Southern Anatolian Montane Conifer and Deciduous Forests (Living National Treasures; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2012).


Important freshwater ecoregions include the Coastal Levant and the Jordan River (Living National Treasures).

Mount Gilboa Iris Iris haynei. Golan Heights. Photo by: Ishi Talmon. 26.03.2008. 

http://www.treknature.com/gallery/photo158265.htm

Animals unique to Palestine

Mammals found only in this region include four chromosomal species of the Palestine blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi) and the Naqab or Negev Shrew (Crocidura ramona), the Palestine Golden Jackal (Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008), the Gaza or Palestine House Mouse (Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007). The Acacia Gazelle (Gazella gazella acaciae Mendelssohn, Groves & Shalmon 1997) is sometimes considered a full species (Living National Treasures; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2005, 2012).

Acacia Gazelle (Gazella gazella acaciae Mendelssohn, Groves & Shalmon 1997). Photo by: Eyal Bartov. 

http://www.eyalbartov.com/Israel-and-the-Middle-East-%D7%97%D7%99%D7%95/MammalsofIsrael/Herbivores/Acacia-Gazelle/i-BdQwL4m

Other unique Palestinian species include the Palestine Sunbird (Cinnyris oseus) and the Palestine or Yellow-vented or White-eyed Bulbul (Pycnonotus xanthopygos). The Be’er Al-Sabae’ (Be'er Sheva) Fringe-fingered Lizard Acanthodactylus beershebensis is a critically endangered endemic reptile.  Endemic amphibians include the recently discovered Jerusalem or Judean Hills tree frog Hyla heinzsteinitzi, and the Palestinian or Hula Painted Frog Discoglossus nigriventer which has been recently rediscovered after being long feared extinct and is now recognized as the sole surviving species of the genus Latonia (Living National Treasures; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2005, 2012). 


Freshwater fish species unique to the area include the Palestine or Wadi Qana Doctor Fish (Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013), the Tiberias or Kinneret Bleak Acanthobrama terraesanctae, the Al-Auja (Yarqon) or Tel Aviv Bleak Acanthobrama telavivensis, the extinct Hula Bleak Acanthobrama (or Mirogrex) hulensis, the Palestine Loach Nemacheilus dori, and the possibly extinct Long-jaw Tristram Tilapia Tristramella sacra. The Ben-Tuvia’s Goby Didogobius bentuvii is apparently known only from the type collected in the Mediterranean off the mouth of the Rubin River. (Living National Treasures; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2005, 2012, 2013).


The Palestine or Al-Naqab (Negev) Coelacanth Fish fossil († Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013) was discovered at the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab (Negev), Palestine (Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2013).

The Wadi Araba Huntsman Spider Cerbalus aravensis was discovered in the Sands of Samar in the southern Wadi Araba (Arava Valley) of Palestine in 2010. It has a leg span of about 14 cm (5.5 inches), making it the largest spider of its type in the Middle East. Credit: Yael Olek - University of Haifa/Getty Images. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/146054/Cerbalus-aravensis-discovered-in-the-Sands-of-Samar-in-the

The most distinctive endemic invertebrate is the Ayyalon Cave blind scorpion Akrav israchanani known only from Ayyalon Cave near Ramla and the sole member of the family Akravidae.  Endemic insects include the Naqab jewel beetle Xantheremia freidbergi, the longhorned beetle Cortodera kochi, the northern Palestine longhorned beetle Agapanthia orbachi, the Israeli leaf beetle Gonioctena israelita, a scarab Anoxioides bytinskisalzi, and the Palestinian grasshopper Sphingonotus angulatus.  Other endemic invertebrates include the Ayalon Cave Blind Prawn Typhlocaris ayyaloni, and the Sea of Galilee or Lake Tiberias Blind Prawn Typhlocaris galilee, an isopod crustacean Typhlocirolana (or Turcolana) steinitzi, the Wadi Araba huntsman spider Cerbalus aravensis, the Palestinian jumping spider Salticus amitaii, a jumping spider Phlegra amitaii, the Israeli scorpion Birulatus israelensis, a pseudoscorpion Ayyalonia dimentmani, the land snails Trochoidea pseudojacosta and Cecilioides genezarethensis, the Jerusalem or Judean Hills centipede Cryptops pori, and the Jaffa marine amphipod (Ampelisca jaffaensis Bellan-Santini & Kaim-Malka, 1977) from Jaffa, Palestine (Living National Treasures; Khalaf-von Jaffa, July 2005, 2012).

Inhabitants of the Ayyalon Cave near Ramla, Occupied Palestine. (a) Tethysbaena ophelicola (Photo N. Ben Eliahu); (b) Typhlocaris ayyaloni (Photo D. Darom); (c) Ayyalonia dimentmani (Photo I. Naaman); (d) Akrav israchanani (Photo I. Naaman). http://file.scirp.org/Html/2-8301997/25c25927-0429-4ba0-b923-76a7d2d7a99c.jpg

References and Internet Websites

Abd Rabou, Abdel Fattah N. (2005). An Ecological Survey and Assessment of Wadi Gaza Nature Reserve, Gaza Strip – Palestine, with particular emphasis on Wildlife. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Life Sciences, Al-Neelain University – Sudan. 278 pp.

Abd Rabou, Abdel Fattah N.; Maged M. Yassin, Mohammed R. Al Agha, Dawi M. Hamad, Abdel Karim S. Ali (2007). Wild Mammals in the Gaza Strip, with Particular Reference to Wadi Gaza. The Islamic University Journal (Series of Natural Studies and Engineering), Gaza, Palestine. Vol. 15, No.1, pp. 87-109, 2007, ISSN 1726-6807.

http://www.iugaza.edu/ara/Research/articles/natural15(1)2007pp87-109.pdf

Aharoni, I. (1917). Zum Vorkommen der Säugetiere in Palästina und Syrien. Z. Mitt. Dt. Paläst. Ver., 40: 235-242. 

Aharoni, Israel (1930). Die Säugetiere Palästinas. Z. Säugetierkd. 5: 327-343. 

Al-Dabagh, Mustafa Murad (1985). The Plant and Animal Kingdoms in our Land Palestine, and its relation to the Names of Sites. Beirut. (in Arabic).

Atallah, Sana Issa (1966). Mammalogy. In: International Jordan Expedition 1966. (Boyd, J. M., ed.). Nature, London, 212:664-666.

Atallah, S. I. (1967). A collection of mammals from El-Jafr., southern Jordan. Z. Säugetierk., 32(5):307-309. 

Atallah, Dr. Sana Issa (1977). The Mammals of the Eastern Mediterranean region: their ecology, systematics and zoogeographical relationships (part 1). Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 25: 241-320. 

Atallah, Dr. Sana Issa (1978). The Mammals of the Eastern Mediterranean region: their ecology, systematics and zoogeographical relationships (part 2). Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 26: 1-50.

Atrash, Imad F. (1995). The Birds of Palestine (School Guidebook). http://www.wildlife-pal.org/imada-cv.htm

Atrash, Imad F. (1995). The Flowers of Palestine (School Guidebook). 

Atrash, Imad F. (1996). Save the Nature (School Guidebook).

Atrash, Imad F. (1996). Save the Water (School Guidebook). http://www.wildlife-pal.org/imada-cv.htm

Bodenheimer, F. S. (1935). Animal Life in Palestine: An Introduction to the Problems of animal Ecology and Zoogeography. L. Mayer Pub. Jerusalem. xiii + 506 pp.

Bodenheimer, F.S. (1937). Prodromus Fauna Palestinae. Mem. Inst. Egyp., Cairo. 33: 47-51.
Bodenheimer, F. S. (1958). The Present Taxonomic Status of the Terrestrial Mammals of Palestine. Bull. Research Council of Israel, Zoology. Vol. 7B: 165-189.

Bodenheimer, F. S. (1960). Animal and Man in Bible Lands. E.J. Brill Publ. Leiden. pp. 232.

Ferguson, Walter W. (2002). The Mammals of Israel. Written and Illustrated by: Walter W. Ferguson, and Edited by: Susan Menache. Gefen Publishing House, Jerusalem and New York. Pps. 160.

Harrison, David L. (1964). The Mammals of Arabia. Volume 1. Introduction, Chiroptera, Insectivora, Primates. Ernest Benn Ltd., London. xx + 192 pp.

Harrison, David L. (1968). The Mammals of Arabia. Volume 2. Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Hyracoidea. Ernest Benn Ltd., London. xiv + 193-381 pp.

Harrison, David L. (1972). The Mammals of Arabia. Volume 3. Lagomorpha and Rodentia. Ernest Benn Ltd., London. xvii + 384-670. 

Harrison David L. (1981). Mammals of the Arabian Gulf. George Allen & Unwin, London, pps. 92.

Harrison, D. L. and Bates, P. J. (1991). The Mammals of Arabia. second edition. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, Kent. xvi+ 354.

Harrison, David L. and R. E. Lewis (1964). A Note on the Occurrence of the Weasel (Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766) (Carnivora: Mustelinae) in Lebanon. Zeit. f. Säugetierkd., 29:3, 179-181. 
Israel’s Nature Site. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/buprestidae.htm  

The Naqab jewel beetle Xantheremia freidbergi

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/buprestidae.htm

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman (1983). Haywan Al-Ghurair / Al-Gharir fi Falestin wa Shibeh Al-Jazeera Al-Arabia (The Badger in Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula). Al-Khalisah Bulletin. The National Palestinian Assemblage. Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year. Number 2. February 1983. pp. 12 -13. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman (1983). Al-Numour Fi Falestin (Leopards in Palestine). Al-Khalisah Bulletin. The National Palestinian Assemblage. Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year. Number 3. April 1983. pp.18 -19. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984). The Fennec: The Desert Fox (Fennecus zerda). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year. Number 4. April 1984. pp. 1-12. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman-Ali B. (1984). The Long-eared Hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) in the Arabian Peninsula. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year, No.5, May 1984. pp. 1-18. (In Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984-1985). The Weasel Project: Scientific Research on captive weasels (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in the Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, England, during the Academic Year 1984-1985. Supervisor: Dr. Nigel Dunstone. Unpublished scientific research and data & scientific diary. Research Notebook. pp. 1-52. 

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Saarbrücken Zoo, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 11. January 1987. pp. 1-10.
Khalaf, Norman (1987). Al-Numour Fi Falestin (The Leopards in Palestine). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 11, Jamadi Alaula 1407 AH, January 1987 AD. pp. 12-13. (in Arabic).

The Palestine Blind Mole Rat (Spalax ehrenbergi). Photo by Boris Krystufek. http://cmsdata.iucn.org/img/original/spala_ehrenbergi_dd_c_boris_krystufek.jpg

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Sinai Leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 12. February 1987. pp.1-9.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1988). Activity Patterns and Reproductive Behaviour of Snow Leopards, Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775) at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey Island. International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Panthera uncia. Volume 5, pp. 61 - 71. Editor: Leif Blomqvist, Helsinki Zoo, Finland. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (1990). The Wolf (Canis lupus) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Eighth Year, Number 20, December 1990, Jumada Al Thani 1411 AH. pp. 1-11. Rilchingen-Hanweiler and Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. http://animals-of-palestine.webs.com/the-wolf-in-palestine 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae'q Al-Nouma'n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali (2001). The Foxes of Palestine. http://www.gazelle.8m.net/catalog.html 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction.
http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Threatened Mammals. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Leopards of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. United Arab Emirates. Number 41. Twenty Third Year. May 2005. pp. 1-9. http://web.archive.org/web/20091021193837/http://geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Leopard.html 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Der Arabische Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 42. Twenty Third Year. June 2005. pp. 1-8. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://web.archive.org/web/20091021145630/http://geocities.com/jaffacity/Arabischer_Leopard.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Jaffa Amphipod (Ampelisca jaffaensis Bellan-Santini and Kaim-Malka, 1977) from Jaffa, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 43, July 2005. pp. 1-5. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://archive.today/pRywX

The Jaffa Marine Amphipod (Ampelisca jaffaensis) from Jaffa, Palestine. 

 http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/faunainpalestine.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. in: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, Twenty-fourth Year, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-46. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006 / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. ISBN 3-00-017294-7. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006, 484 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/mammaliaarabica.htm
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) in Palestine. In: Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland und Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 147-149. http://web.archive.org/web/20091025002636/http://geocities.com/jaffacity/Lion_Palestine.html 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Common Weasel (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in Palestine and the East Mediterranean Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 57, Twenty-fourth Year, September 2006. pp. 1-7. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://web.archive.org/web/20081016043852/http://www.geocities.com./jaffacity/Weasel_Palestine.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 58, October 2006, Ramadan 1427 H. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Raubkatzen/conversations/messages/49
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr, Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1833) in the Arabia's Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 61, January 2007, Thu Al-Hijja 1427 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German).
http://khalaf.homepage24.de/Behavioural%20Observations%20on%20the%
20Arabian%20Leopard%20in%20the%20Arabia-s%20Wildlife%20Centre-%
20Sharjah-%20UAE
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The First Sight Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, Rabi'e Al-Akher 1428 AH. pp. 1-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in English; Abstract in English and Arabic, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic).
http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin حيوانات فلسطين (The Animals of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%
AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007: A New House Mouse Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 66, June 2007, Jamada Al-Ulla 1428 AH. pp. 14-24. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English). http://www.oocities.org/jaffacity/Gaza_House_Mouse.html

The Gaza or Palestine House Mouse Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007 from Beit Lahia, North Gaza Strip. Foto: Dr. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou, 2005. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D9%84%D9%81:Mus_musculus_gazaensis_khalaf_2007_Gaza_Palestine_House_Mouse.jpg

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. ISBN 978-3-00-019568-6. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007, 300 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English).
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/felidaearabica.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Persian or Iranian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor, Pocock 1927). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 77, May 2008. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Raubkatzen/conversations/messages/91 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008: A New Golden Jackal Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 80, August 2008, Rajab / Sha’ban 1429 AH. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English). https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Fauna_Palaestina/conversations/messages/52

The Palestine Golden Jackal Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008, at Rafah Zoo, Al-Brazil Suburb, Rafah City, Gaza Strip, Palestine. 

Foto: Dr. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou, 2008.

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Carnivora Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 2005-2008. / Carnivora Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 2005-2008. First Edition, September 2008, Ramadan 1429 AH. 396 pps. Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. ISBN 978-9948-03-459-9. (In Arabic, English and German). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/carnivoraarabica.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.  http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm  

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Der Mosbacher Löwe (Panthera leo fossilis, Reichenau 1906) / The Early Middle Pleistocene European Cave Lion (Panthera leo fossilis, Reichenau 1906). Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 101. January 2013. Pp. 1-26. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://lion-panthera-leo.webs.com/mosbacher-loewe 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Der Europäische Leopard (Panthera pardus sickenbergi, Schütt 1969) / The European Leopard (Panthera pardus sickenbergi, Schütt 1969). Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 102. February 2013. Pp. 1-17. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://leopard-panthera-pardus.webs.com/europeanleopard.htm & http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/europ__ische_leopard_panthera_pardu 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A New Freshwater Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 103, July 2013, Ramadan 1434 AH. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/palestine-doctor-fish 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Taxon Profile: Subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013. BioLib.cz. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1059609/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Palestine Doctor Fish (Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/80813

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 08.07.2013. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/9500749723/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). The Two Wolf Subspecies (Canis lupus arabs Pocock, 1934) and (Canis lupus pallipes Sykes, 1831) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 107, November 2013, Muharram 1435 AH. pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/palestinewolf1.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). † Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 107, November 2013, Muharram 1435 AH. pp. 30-38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/macropomoidespalaestina.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Taxon Profile: Species Palestine Coelacanth Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013. BioLib. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1075889/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Palestine Coelacanth (Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/97239 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. pp. 456 (English part 378 pages and Arabic part 78 pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi Janensch, 1920 Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 117, September 2014, Thu Al-Qi’da 1435 AH. pp. 1-33. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/ & http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/dinosaurs_at_beit_zeit_al_quds_jeru & http://www.joomag.com/magazine/gazelle-the-palestinian-biological-bulletin-issn-0178-6288-number-117-september-2014-pp-1-33/0426645001392611970?page=1 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Dinasurat Al-Quds Al-Shareef, Filasteen Al-Muhtala / Dinosaurs of Al-Quds )Jerusalem(, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 122, February 2015. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (in Arabic). http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/dinosaur-al-quds-palestine 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Haywan Al-Ghurair (Al-Ghurairy) Al-Farisi fi Filastin wa Shibeh Al-Jazeera Al-Arabia / The Persian Badger (Meles meles canescens Blanford, 1875) in Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288). Number 123, March 2015. pp. 1-17. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (in Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine.webs.com/persian-badger 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Award for Biodiversity in Palestine 2012 / 2013 : Essay and Photography Contest of the Palestine Sunbird  (Cinnyris osea Bonaparte, 1856). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 124, April 2015. pp. 1-21. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/drnormanakhalafaward.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/

The Tiberias or Kinneret Bleak Acanthobrama terraesanctae Steinitz, 1952. http://www.israquarium.co.il/Fish/IsraelFish/Acanthobrama%20terraesanctae.html

Lewis, R.E.; Lewis, J.H.; and Sana Issa Atallah (1968). A review of Lebanese mammals. Carnivora, Pinnipedia, Hyracoidea and Artiodactyla. J. of Zool. (London) 154: 517-531. 

Living National Treasures. Palestine and Israel. http://lntreasures.com/pi.html 

Mendelssohn, H., Yom-Tov, Y. (1999). Fauna Palaestina: Mammalia of Israel. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, Keterpress Enterprises, 439 pp. 

Por, F. D., Ch. Dimentman, A. Frumkin, I. Naaman (2013)..Animal life in the chemoautotrophic ecosystem of the hypogenic groundwater cave of Ayyalon (Israel): A summing up. Natural Science.Vol.5 No. 4A (2013), Article ID:30808,7 pagesDOI:10.4236/ns.2013.54A002. http://file.scirp.org/Html/2-8301997_30808.htm 

Qumsiyeh, Mazin B. (1992). Review of “Mammals of Arabia” by D.L. Harrison and P.J. Bates. J. Mammal., 73: 228-229. 

Qumsiyeh, Mazin B. (1996). Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press. Pps. 389. 

Tristram, H. B. (1866). Report on the Mammals of Palestine. Proc. Zool. Soc. London.1866: 84-93.
Tristram, H. B. (1867). The Natural History of the Bible. Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge Publ. London. 515 pp.
Tristram, H. B. (1884). The Fauna and Flora of Palestine. The Survey of Western Palestine. Palestine Exploration Fund, London. 455 pp.